Riso - Understanding the Enneagram
 

Personality Type Eight: The Leader
The Powerful, Expansive, Dictatorial, Destructive Person

Childhood Origin: Ambivalent to mother-figure.
Basic Fear: Of submitting to another.
Basic Desire: To be self-reliant.
Healthy Sense of Self: I am strong.
Characteristic Temptation: To be too self-sufficient.
Characteristic Vice: Lust.
Characteristic Virtue: Magnanimity.
Hidden Complaint: I am fighting for my own survival, and others would take advantage of me if I let them.
Key Defense Mechanisms: Repression, displacement, denial.

Don Richard Riso

Understanding the Enneagram:
The Practical Guide to Personality Types
Houghton Mifflin Company, 1990, 288 pages